Gold has been known since prehistoric times. It may have been the first metal used by humans and was valued for ornamentation and rituals. Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold.
Atomic number: 79
Atomic weight: 196.97
Group, period, block: 11, 6, d
Color: metallic yellow
Classification: transition metal
Electron configuration: 4f14 5d10 6s1
Density: 19.30 g/cm-3
Melting point: 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Boiling point: 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Oxidation states: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2
Electronegativity: 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies: 1st: 890.1 kJ·mol-1
Covalent radius: 136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius: 166 pm
There is one naturally occurring isotope of gold exists, 197Au.